Updated: 6 days ago

A discourse is a way of developing a story about something, the environment represents a wide range of values that leads to the development of different discourses.

Utilitarian values about nature can be represented by the slogan ‘use wildlife or lose it’. The discourse here is that if wildlife has a monetary value, then society is more likely to preserve it than find financial return from it. The invisible hand of the market ensures continued supply.

There may be a discourse about nature conservation that is rooted in moral values of love, happiness, and mutual respect.

When people believe in a particular discourse, they seek to confirm their beliefs, this is called ‘confirmation bias’. They seek out information that conforms to their own perspectives in order to confirm their own beliefs.

Media play an important role in creating a balance report that presents different discourses fairly. Media outlets know their audiences and seek to confirm their biases of the people that buy their newspapers or read their websites.

African elephants are large herbivores that live in social groups with complex and long-lasting relationships. They have rusks that are valued for their ivory.

1. Elephants are magnificent animals that have an intrinsic right to live in their natural habitats.

2. In order to ensure sustainable conservation of elephants, they should be culled and the profits from the sale of meat and ivory used to manage the herds for posterity.

3. Preserving elephants for future generations is imposing an excessive cost on present generations through alienation of land for national parks, thereby denying local people their traditional livelihoods.

There is tension between the rights of individuals and the good of society as a whole. The rights of individuals to life and liberty that are written into stone, such as “thou shalt not kill” are bypassed in times of war when conflict is justified by the government on the basis that war is for the greater good of society.

Some of the values are incomparable. One person’s value of the intrinsic worth of an elephant is not comparable with someone else’s value of the price placed on an elephant’s tusk as a trophy.

The concept of “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” comes undone when a minority suffers, which is usually the poor.

Related study: Analysing dominant policy perspectives – the role of discourse analysis by David Ockwell & Yvonne Rydin.

Most of us carry our phones with us wherever we go, it's a great place to keep all of the tools and devices that used to clutter up our camera bags. These are the applications you can use when photographing to ensure that you get home with the greatest possible photos.

(iOS) Pocket light meter or (Android) Light meter

Pocket Light Meter is a straightforward yet really handy app. It's a basic reflected light metre with a number of features that make it quite user-friendly. You may click to capture metre readings from different portions of the scene, and it features an easy-to-use settings slider that allows you to rapidly enter any two exposure values and it will compute the third for you.

There's also a handy log option that lets you keep track of your settings for shot planning. My favourite feature is that it measures colour temperature for white balancing, in addition to exposure.

While an app version of a light metre won't be as precise or have all of the features as a standalone metre like a Sekonic or other, I've found this app to be incredibly accurate and useful.

(iOS) Long exposure calculator or (Android) Exposure calculator

If you use neutral density filters for long exposure photography, you've almost certainly encountered scenarios where you need to calculate your shutter speed while wearing the ND filters. While you can figure out the proper exposure on your own, my concept of a photography evening does not include math. This useful programme will do the math for you, and it will not only give you the right shutter speed, but it will also set a timer to record the length.

The timer only works for shutter speeds longer than 10 seconds, but having the timer integrated right into the app is quite useful while shooting in Bulb mode.

(iOS) One note or (Android) One note

A excellent notes app may appear apparent, yet it is easy to ignore. Your notes app serves as a repository for all of the plans you've made with the planning tools listed above. You can send screenshots of map views and position data directly to your preferred notes app. 

On-site notes about settings and equipment, as well as things I wish to do differently next time, are helpful for future planning. I also retain packing lists for different types of shoots, hashtag sets to copy and use when publishing on social media, and recommendations for destinations from individuals I meet while travelling.

One Note is one of my preferred apps, since it syncs easily between my Huawei phone and my windows PC and the app allows me to search my notes and share notebooks with others. However, your preferred note-taking tool will suffice here; just make sure you use it to the best extent feasible to aid your photos.

(iOS) Microsoft translator or (Android) Microsoft translator

A good translation app is vital for the travelling photographer. This is just one of the numerous ways that the smartphone era has made travelling so much easier. While there are several decent translation applications out there, and the ideal one for any particular case depends on the language you're translating from and out of, Microsoft Translator is usually my go-to.

It can translate from speech or text and has a large number of language possibilities. It also includes the possibility of overlaying text with its translation using the smartphone camera, which is useful for signs and restaurant menus.

Photographer: Mike L. Camera: FUJIFILM, X-T2

Settings & gear

Shooting nightscapes is a great method to practise shooting in low-light situations. Your settings will vary depending on the area and weather, but there are a few things to keep in mind. Digital noise, for example, can be easily seen in darker areas. While modern cameras are better at handling noise, it is still a good idea to keep your ISO as low as possible.

Light is scarce at night, it is as good a time as any to experiment with larger apertures to let in more light. When photographing point light sources with a smaller aperture like f/11 at night, your background details are often lost anyway, so having a large depth of focus, which is obtained when shooting point light sources with a smaller aperture like f/11, has little further benefits.

It's also a good time to try out different shutter speeds. Keeping your shutter open throughout the day necessitates the use of filters to limit the light. At night, you'll need to add light and can be more creative with shutter speed.

Consider the benefits of High Dynamic Range (HDR) photographs before you dismiss them. Bracketing is a good approach to deal with the very contrast-y reality of night photography.

Long exposures add noise to your sensor as it heats up, which is referred to as thermal noise. It's a good idea to check the Long Exposure Noise Reduction box on your camera's menu at this point.

Locations & scouting

Your location is crucial, just as it is in other types of photography. Begin by making a list of what you wish to photograph. Perhaps it's the metropolis at night, with the elusive Milky Way; fascinating light trails made by autos; or some form of nightlife action. While some of these coexist, they are usually distinct from one another and require their own set of conditions.

Photography necessitates constant evaluation of your light source(s), night photography necessitates additional thought for obvious reasons. What kind of light sources do you have in your area?

When photographing landscapes at night, you could arrive early and notice how the light changes. If you do not have the luxury of time, there are phone apps that help you figure out the light direction of your location.

Scouting for a location can be as simple as conducting a Google search, asking for a recommendation, or taking a trip to learn more about the area. Knowing your destination ahead of time provides you a photography edge and also keeps you safer.


The moon is an enthralling topic. Because it is a source of light, you must consider it when scouting and preparing your nightscape pictures.

If it's your subject, you might want to photograph it while it's at its most dramatic (full moon, supermoon, or harvest moon) and on a clear night to get the most detail. After you've determined the proper exposure for photographing the moon, consider incorporating it into a scene.

If you're photographing other celestial objects, it's best if the moon is barely visible or not so prominent. There are various apps that can assist you figure out moon phases and direction in respect to your location, much like there are for dawn and tides.

Mind where you step

Condition your gear

Temperatures tend to drop at night, you must be cautious when shifting your camera from warmer to colder environments (the reverse is also true). Any seasoned night photographer will tell you that "lens fog" is a pain since it prevents light from going through your lens. Lens hoods aid in the reduction of moisture build-up on your lens.

Another advantage of arriving a little earlier is that your gear will have more time to adjust to the shooting conditions.

Walk with a flashlight

A flashlight is useful for a variety of reasons. It can be used to verify that you or your tripod have correct footing. It also comes in handy when you need to make adjustments to your camera's settings (knowing your controls off-hand is very useful in the dark).

It can be used for more than just these utilitarian purposes; it can also help you with your night photography. It can be used to light paint portions of your image or even to create a bright spot to aid focussing.

Photographer: 邱 严. Camera: Canon, EOS 80D


ISO has nothing to do with noise. It's a lack of signal. ISO is simply the "volume dial" that you may set on your camera to "brighten" your photos. It can't make up for a lack of light. When stacking and tracking are addressed, this will become clearer.

Increase the ISO to around 400-128000, depending on how dark the sky is, then open the aperture as wide as your lens will allow. Because everything around you is so dim, we're attempting to let in as much light as possible.

You don't want to over-expose because not all cameras are invariant. Invariant cameras include Nikon, Sony, Fujifilm, Panasonic, and Pentax. Nikon and Sony mirrorless cameras are dual gain, which means they can produce less read noise at higher ISOs. Canon's exposure is a little erratic, so it's best to get it right in camera.


If you're using a zoom, set it to manual focus and zoom out all the way to the widest focal length. Use the widest aperture and lowest f/number you have (for example, f/3.5). Then, by moving the focus ring to the infinity marking on your lens, try to vaguely focus. If it doesn't have that marking, try adjusting the focus very slowly until stars begin to appear in live view.

Then, using your tripod head, set a bright star in the centre of the screen. Toggle the digital zoom feature on your camera by pressing the small magnifying glass button. Press the zoom button until the image on your screen is as large as possible. Gently swivel the focus back and forth at this point until the star is as crisp and precise as possible. This can be difficult, so be patient and try a bright distant object if you can't find a star to work with. Keep in mind that if you change the zoom on a zoom lens, you'll have to refocus.

Shutter speed

After you've focused, you'll need to figure out your shutter speed. Because we know the Earth isn't flat and revolves, a shutter speed of too long will blur the stars. However, if the shutter speed is too fast, the image will be excessively dark.

The NPF Rule is used to calculate this. You've probably heard of the 500 rule, but as digital sensors have improved, it's become less relevant. The NPF is extremely accurate, taking into consideration all of the variables in your individual arrangement.

This is where a wider lens comes in handy; something between 14 and 24mm is ideal for capturing a wide field of view. If you're not shooting with a full frame camera, remember to factor in your crop factor. A 70-200mm zoom lens is great for events or sports, but it will make your shutter speeds super fast because a star will move across the frame in no time because everything is "bigger."


Move the camera on the tripod and do fast 2-3 second exposures at a super high ISO to compose the photo. This is merely a test to evaluate if the shot's ultimate result will meet your expectations.

Turn on the camera's self-timer release mode when you're happy with a composition, drop the ISO to the level mentioned above, and then let it rip. After pressing the shutter button, the self-timer will ensure that no shakiness interrupts the shot. This is also something that a remote trigger can help with.